Dallam County History Written in 1922
Dallam County. Occupying the extreme northwest corner of the Panhandle, Dallam County was for two-thirds of its area included in the great Capitol Syndicate holdings, and about fifteen years ago it was estimated that half the lands of the county were held in large tracts. Two railroad lines have encouraged development of agriculture and the breaking up of the big ranches, and in recent years the county has come to claim distinction as a productive center for all the staple Panhandle crops.
Dallam County was organized September 9, 1891. In 1888 the Fort Worth & Denver City Railway was built across the county to Texline, where the two divisions of the road were connected. Tex-line, close to the New Mexico boundary, was the original county seat. In 1900 the Rock Island Railroad was built across the county at right angles to the first line, intersecting at Dalhart, near the southern edge of Dallam County, with a portion of the larger city of today in Hartley County. Dalhart, founded as a railroad junction point, has grown rapidly and is now one of the largest towns in the Panhandle, having a population in 1910 of 2,580 and in 1920 of 2,676, considerably more than half the population of Dallam County. While the center of a large trade, both retail and wholesale, Dalhart derives its chief importance from the railroad, the Rock Island maintaining shops and division headquarters there. It is now the county seat. Outside of Dalhart and Texline other towns in the county are Corlena, Perico, Ware, Matlock, Chamberlin, Conlen and Hovey.
The population of Dallam County in 1890 was 112; in 1900, 146; in 1910, 4,001, and in 1920, 4,528. In 1900 there were only four farms in the entire county, due to the fact that most of the lands, as already stated, was under one corporate ownership. By 1910 the large tracts had been broken up, and there were 201 farms. The amount of land officially described in the census as “improved land” in 1900 was 1,280 acres, and by 1910 that had increased to about 48,000 acres. The total area of Dallam County is 980,480 acres, and 346,697 acres were included in farms at the last census. The number of cattle found in 1910 was 27,419; of horses and mules, about 900; and of sheep, 6,443; in 1920, 37,428 cattle, 2,231 horses and mules.
Although situated high up on the Plains region, Dallam County citizens claim that every staple crop can be grown except cotton. In 1909 the acreage in hay and forage crops was 10,501 ; in kaffir corn and milo maize, 7,118 ; in wheat, 3,787 ; in corn, 509, and in oats, 479. The valuation of property in the county in 1903 was $1,367.798; in 1913, $6,763,300: and in 1920, $8,853,999. – History of Texas, 1922, by W. Barrett Travis.